**Purpose**

To solve for X the continuous-time Sylvester equation AX + XB = C where A, B, C and X are general N-by-N, M-by-M, N-by-M and N-by-M matrices respectively.

SUBROUTINE SB04MD( N, M, A, LDA, B, LDB, C, LDC, Z, LDZ, IWORK, $ DWORK, LDWORK, INFO ) C .. Scalar Arguments .. INTEGER INFO, LDA, LDB, LDC, LDWORK, LDZ, M, N C .. Array Arguments .. INTEGER IWORK(*) DOUBLE PRECISION A(LDA,*), B(LDB,*), C(LDC,*), DWORK(*), Z(LDZ,*)

**Input/Output Parameters**

N (input) INTEGER The order of the matrix A. N >= 0. M (input) INTEGER The order of the matrix B. M >= 0. A (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N) On entry, the leading N-by-N part of this array must contain the coefficient matrix A of the equation. On exit, the leading N-by-N upper Hessenberg part of this array contains the matrix H, and the remainder of the leading N-by-N part, together with the elements 2,3,...,N of array DWORK, contain the orthogonal transformation matrix U (stored in factored form). LDA INTEGER The leading dimension of array A. LDA >= MAX(1,N). B (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB,M) On entry, the leading M-by-M part of this array must contain the coefficient matrix B of the equation. On exit, the leading M-by-M part of this array contains the quasi-triangular Schur factor S of the matrix B'. LDB INTEGER The leading dimension of array B. LDB >= MAX(1,M). C (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDC,M) On entry, the leading N-by-M part of this array must contain the coefficient matrix C of the equation. On exit, the leading N-by-M part of this array contains the solution matrix X of the problem. LDC INTEGER The leading dimension of array C. LDC >= MAX(1,N). Z (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDZ,M) The leading M-by-M part of this array contains the orthogonal matrix Z used to transform B' to real upper Schur form. LDZ INTEGER The leading dimension of array Z. LDZ >= MAX(1,M).

IWORK INTEGER array, dimension (4*N) DWORK DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDWORK) On exit, if INFO = 0, DWORK(1) returns the optimal value of LDWORK, and DWORK(2), DWORK(3),..., DWORK(N) contain the scalar factors of the elementary reflectors used to reduce A to upper Hessenberg form, as returned by LAPACK Library routine DGEHRD. LDWORK INTEGER The length of the array DWORK. LDWORK = MAX(1, 2*N*N + 8*N, 5*M, N + M). For optimum performance LDWORK should be larger. If LDWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the optimal size of the DWORK array, returns this value as the first entry of the DWORK array, and no error message related to LDWORK is issued by XERBLA.

INFO INTEGER = 0: successful exit; < 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value; > 0: if INFO = i, 1 <= i <= M, the QR algorithm failed to compute all the eigenvalues (see LAPACK Library routine DGEES); > M: if a singular matrix was encountered whilst solving for the (INFO-M)-th column of matrix X.

The matrix A is transformed to upper Hessenberg form H = U'AU by the orthogonal transformation matrix U; matrix B' is transformed to real upper Schur form S = Z'B'Z using the orthogonal transformation matrix Z. The matrix C is also multiplied by the transformations, F = U'CZ, and the solution matrix Y of the transformed system HY + YS' = F is computed by back substitution. Finally, the matrix Y is then multiplied by the orthogonal transformation matrices, X = UYZ', in order to obtain the solution matrix X to the original problem.

[1] Golub, G.H., Nash, S. and Van Loan, C.F. A Hessenberg-Schur method for the problem AX + XB = C. IEEE Trans. Auto. Contr., AC-24, pp. 909-913, 1979.

3 3 2 2 The algorithm requires about (5/3) N + 10 M + 5 N M + 2.5 M N operations and is backward stable.

None

**Program Text**

* SB04MD EXAMPLE PROGRAM TEXT * Copyright (c) 2002-2017 NICONET e.V. * * .. Parameters .. INTEGER NIN, NOUT PARAMETER ( NIN = 5, NOUT = 6 ) INTEGER NMAX, MMAX PARAMETER ( NMAX = 20, MMAX = 20 ) INTEGER LDA, LDB, LDC, LDZ PARAMETER ( LDA = NMAX, LDB = MMAX, LDC = NMAX, $ LDZ = MMAX ) INTEGER LIWORK PARAMETER ( LIWORK = 4*NMAX ) INTEGER LDWORK PARAMETER ( LDWORK = MAX( 1, 2*NMAX*NMAX+8*NMAX, 5*MMAX, $ NMAX+MMAX ) ) * .. Local Scalars .. INTEGER I, INFO, J, M, N * .. Local Arrays .. DOUBLE PRECISION A(LDA,NMAX), B(LDB,MMAX), C(LDC,MMAX), $ DWORK(LDWORK), Z(LDZ,MMAX) INTEGER IWORK(LIWORK) * .. External Subroutines .. EXTERNAL SB04MD * .. Intrinsic Functions .. INTRINSIC MAX * .. Executable Statements .. * WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99999 ) * Skip the heading in the data file and read the data. READ ( NIN, FMT = '()' ) READ ( NIN, FMT = * ) N, M IF ( N.LT.0 .OR. N.GT.NMAX ) THEN WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99994 ) N ELSE READ ( NIN, FMT = * ) ( ( A(I,J), J = 1,N ), I = 1,N ) IF ( M.LT.0 .OR. M.GT.MMAX ) THEN WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99993 ) M ELSE READ ( NIN, FMT = * ) ( ( B(I,J), J = 1,M ), I = 1,M ) READ ( NIN, FMT = * ) ( ( C(I,J), J = 1,M ), I = 1,N ) * Find the solution matrix X. CALL SB04MD( N, M, A, LDA, B, LDB, C, LDC, Z, LDZ, IWORK, $ DWORK, LDWORK, INFO ) * IF ( INFO.NE.0 ) THEN WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99998 ) INFO ELSE WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99997 ) DO 20 I = 1, N WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99996 ) ( C(I,J), J = 1,M ) 20 CONTINUE WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99995 ) DO 40 I = 1, M WRITE ( NOUT, FMT = 99996 ) ( Z(I,J), J = 1,M ) 40 CONTINUE END IF END IF END IF STOP * 99999 FORMAT (' SB04MD EXAMPLE PROGRAM RESULTS',/1X) 99998 FORMAT (' INFO on exit from SB04MD = ',I2) 99997 FORMAT (' The solution matrix X is ') 99996 FORMAT (20(1X,F8.4)) 99995 FORMAT (/' The orthogonal matrix Z is ') 99994 FORMAT (/' N is out of range.',/' N = ',I5) 99993 FORMAT (/' M is out of range.',/' M = ',I5) END

SB04MD EXAMPLE PROGRAM DATA 3 2 2.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 6.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 4.0 0.0 5.0

SB04MD EXAMPLE PROGRAM RESULTS The solution matrix X is -2.7685 0.5498 -1.0531 0.6865 4.5257 -0.4389 The orthogonal matrix Z is -0.9732 -0.2298 0.2298 -0.9732